smiling young man with arms crossed

Chronic Psychosocial Adversity Reduces the Production of Dopamine

Adversity refers to difficulties, misfortunes, or hardships. There are six types of adversity: physical adversity, mental adversity, emotional adversity, social adversity, spiritual adversity, and financial adversity. Psychosocial refers to the connection between social factors and an individual’s thoughts and behaviors. Research finds that people exposed to a lifetime of psychosocial adversity may experience impaired abilities…

pensive young man in black hoodie slumped against wall with peeling paint

The Differences Between Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction

It is a common misconception that tolerance, dependence, and addiction describe the same thing. However, each of these terms describes different ways in which drugs affect someone’s body and brain. The differences between these three terms are important for understanding the complexities of addiction. Tolerance Tolerance occurs when a person’s physical response to a substance,…

therapist taking notes to tell patient that recovery from opioid use needs multiple treatment options

Recovery from Opioid Use Requires Multiple Treatment Options

Opioid addiction research mostly focuses on the prevention, development, and consequences of this disorder, without concentrating on individuals who have recovered from their addiction and how they attained their recovery. A research study focusing on those who achieved long-term recovery found that those who succeeded utilized multiple resources to maintain sobriety. The researchers used data…

father-to-be and wife avoiding alcohol consumption

Fathers-To-Be Should Avoid Alcohol Consumption Before Conception

Alcohol consumption by parents trying to conceive a child increases the risk of the offspring developing congenital heart disease. Research finds that aspiring mothers, as well as fathers, should both avoid consuming alcohol before conception to protect the baby from congenital heart defects. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart’s function and…